Emotional Intelligence and Its Components

Topic: Psychology and Personality
Words: 875 Pages: 3

Constructs of Emotional Intelligence


The first component of emotional intelligence is motivation; motivation (from Latin motivation) is a dynamic system of interacting internal factors (motivators) that cause and guide a person’s goal-oriented behavior. Internal factors are understood as needs, desires, aspirations, expectations, perceptions, value attitudes, and other psychological components of the personality. The concept of motivation implies a set of forces that encourage a person to carry out activities with the expenditure of certain efforts. Under the influence of motivation, they also perform an action at a specific level of diligence and conscientiousness, with the necessary degree of perseverance to achieve particular goals.

Outward Orientation

The second component of emotional intelligence is outward orientation; outward orientation is one of the regulators of relationships between people. It manifests itself in the desire to help and support other people, and it leads to the development of humanistic values of the individual. Outward orientation also accompanies personal growth and becomes one of its leading signs. It is defined as the ability of a person to penetrate another person’s psyche, with the help of a subject’s feeling, into himself or an object.


The third component of emotional intelligence is self-awareness; it is a set of mental processes, due to which a person is isolated from the surrounding world. It is the manifestation of the individual’s inner essence, a change in attitude to the past, present, and future. Self-awareness presupposes a person’s understanding of his personality as a subject of activity.


The fourth component of emotional intelligence is self-regulation; it is an exceptional level of programming of activity based on the processes of foresight. The process of self-regulation implies the management of a person’s emotions, feelings, and experiences and purposeful change of both individual psychophysiological functions and neuropsychic states as a whole. It is also the interaction of external and internal in the behavior and activity of an individual.

Social Skills

The fifth component of emotional intelligence is social skills; the ability to manage relationships with other people is called social skills and refers to the essential skills of a person. It allows to communicate competently, improve the quality of communication, achieve greater efficiency when contacting others, empathize with them, and control emotions and behavior.

Primary Elements of Emotional Labor

Affective Events

The first primary element of emotional labor is affective events; they are critical conditions in which the subject cannot find a quick and reasonable way out of a dangerous situation. According to Mustafa, Nordin, Razzaq, and Ibrahim (2020), one of the essential manifestations of affective events is that they impose stereotypical actions on the subject. In this way, they provoke a particular form of emergency resolution of problems that have been fixed in evolution: flight, aggression, etc.

Display Rules

The second primary element of emotional labor is display rules; the rules for the manifestation of emotions dictate requirements and help people manage and change their feelings depending on social conditions. When the expression of emotions is intentionally controlled so that a person demonstrates an altered face, the rules for the manifestation of emotions influence affective-expressive behavior. The laws of emotional expressions determine the appropriateness of expressive behavior; it is believed that all mentally healthy adults can control their explicit behavior inappropriate situations.

Emotion-Rule Dissonance

The third primary element of emotional labor is emotion-rule dissonance; it is understood as a state when the components of psychological attitudes and experiences are not in balance. From the point of view of the public, the discrepancy between the emotional manifestations of the situation, the content of the experiences and the reasons that caused them may be one of the manifestations of emotion-rule dissonance. Inverse emotions are affective reactions that are the opposite of adequate ones: a person experiences positive emotions when their needs are not satisfied and negative emotions when they are satisfied.

Emotion Regulation Strategies

The fourth primary element of emotional labor is emotion regulation strategies. Emotions are involved in many processes that unfold at different times: the initial trigger mechanism, the subsequent assessment of the situation, changes in systems, and the final definition of emotion. Therefore, emotional regulation can occur at different stages of the process of generating emotions. Attempts to control or change this process are called strategies for regulating emotions.

Genuine And Fake Emotional Displays

The fifth primary element of emotional labor is genuine and fake dynamic displays. Emotional displays include specific physiological and mental changes in the human condition.

Defense Mechanism I Use Most

Most of all, I use such a mechanism of psychological protection as rationalization. Rationalization is a method developed during a collision with psychoemotional overloads to explain the reaction mechanisms of the external and internal world from a rationally conditioned position. I am looking for any arguments, statistics, and other arguments in favor of behavior that is not approved in society or causes direct harm.

Hardest Construct of Emotional Intelligence

I find it the hardest to maintain such a construct of emotional intelligence as motivation. Often, instead of an important task, I do something else, which practical but less of a priority. I also have a terrible habit of doing everything at the last moment, just before the deadline. I have a predisposition to postpone things, including important and urgent ones.


Mustafa, M. Z., Nordin, M. B., Razzaq, A. R., & Ibrahim, B. (2020). Vocational college teachers in Malaysia: Emotional intelligence. Journal of Archelogy of England, 17(9), 5099-5106.

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