Deviant Behaviors Among Groups

Topic: Social Psychology
Words: 991 Pages: 3

Carbajal, G. V., & Malmierca, M. S. (2018). The neuronal basis of predictive coding along the auditory pathway: From the subcortical roots to cortical deviance detection. Trends in Hearing, 22, 1-33. Web.

Carbajal and Malmierca (2018) integrated the evidence on mismatch negativity and stimulus-specific adaptation from a coding perspective to draw a conclusion on deviance detection. The scholars proposed the use of a different methodology for such studies for a nuanced understanding of deviance detection by introducing mismatch negativity for prediction errors and repetition suppression. In definition, Carbajal and Malmierca (2018) stated that deviance detection refers to the response to stimuli diverging caused by regularities identified by the processing system in previous stimulation.

The scholars obtained data from cellular recordings to establish the generation of prediction error and deviance detection across hierarchical processing levels. However, evidence shows that generative mechanisms are less exclusively cortical compared to stimulus-specific adaptation. Further, the researchers discussed the characteristics of cortical and subcortical structures, plus their contributions to generative mechanisms. The findings give a detailed synthesis of the importance of neuromodulation during a signal mismatch. Additionally, Carbajal and Malmierca (2018) described the occurrence of mismatch negativity and stimulus-specific adaptation at specific cortical locations and time frames. They established both are affected by the manipulation of receptors. The researchers used citations to back claims on the importance of a shared theoretical framework and nomenclature for future research on predictive coding interpretations focused on deviance detection.

Götz, M., Bollmann, G., & O’Boyle, E. H. (2019). Contextual undertow of workplace deviance by and within units: A systematic review. Small Group Research, 50(1), 39-80. Web.

Deviance and employee misconduct are revealed as distinctive features that violate organizational norms. However, literature on the social context of workplace deviance is lacking. Gotz et al. (2018) present findings to sufficiently account for workplace deviance and related events. The researchers performed a systematic review to conceptualize workplace deviance. Their research aimed to demonstrate appropriate behavior, the crucial influence of reference groups, inconsistency of norms across groups, and the provision of injunctive and descriptive norms across multiple reference groups within an organization. Gotz and colleagues systematically reviewed literature published between 1995 and 2017 and searched from the Web of Science Core Collection.

DistillSR was used for data extraction, particularly abstract and title screening. The findings were presented in reference to organizational, external environment, leadership, workplace antecedents, including unit composition, norms, processes, and emergent states; injunctive and descriptive normative nature of workplace deviance. The review revealed that the perseverance of uniformity assumption hinders research advancements on workplace deviance. As such, the scholars took a holistic approach to summarize the guiding principles of literature focusing on workplace deviance, building on its credibility, relevance, and rigor.

Kim, M. J., & Choi, J. N. (2018). Group identity and positive deviance in work groups. The Journal of social psychology, 158(6), 730-743. Web.

Creativity and innovation underscore the success of organizational performance. While past research centers on the adverse impact of deviance, Kim and Choi (2017) argue that it can improve creativity and innovation. Thus, Kim and Choi (2017) examined the impact of identity cognitions such as individual differentiation on positive deviance across groups in the workplace. According to Kim and Choi (2017), positive deviance constitutes diverse but related groups of behavior, from pro-social behavior to principles dissent. Instead of identifying cognition on deviance, the scholars explored the potential intermediate between group context and psychological state to clarify the correlation between positive deviance and identity cognition. Further, Kim and Choi (2017) identified risk-taking intentions as a mediating factor of the correlation given the prevalence of evidence on social risks as a barrier to positive deviance. Subsequently, Kim and Choi (2017) proposed a boundary condition since the mediating factor can vary across teams at different levels. The scholars broadened the focus of previous literature by using a multilevel approach.

Malizia, N. (2018). Boredom and social deviant behavior: An empirical study. Advances in Applied Sociology, 8(02), 174. Web.

Malizia (2018) argued that thus far, the sociology of deviance has failed to completely explore how boredom correlates with deviance, despite the alarming increase in deviant behavior, especially among young people. Therefore, Malizia (2018) sought to identify forms of prevention that can be adopted in institutional and social contexts for the well-being of young people. The empirical study used questionnaires to collect data for identified data, drawn from a stratified random sample. Malizia, N. (2018) used quantitative data in the first phase of the study and employed BPS as the primary survey tool to test the evidence. Additionally, BPS extracted the relation between study variables to analyze empirical data. The findings established that boredom is a significant indicator of deviance. Overall, the current study is relevant as t proves that deviant behavior can be curbed and managed. Malizia (2018) particularly demonstrated the importance of proactive policies in reducing deviance, especially among young people.

Spapens, T., & Moors, H. (2020). Intergenerational transmission and organised crime. A study of seven families in the south of the Netherlands. Trends in organized crime, 23(3), 227-241. Web.

Following the study’s purpose, Smetana and Onderco (2018) provided evidence of organized crime about deviant behavior and criminal leadership. They studied seven families in the Netherlands to present results on intergenerational transmission. The study found that most members in every generation of the selected families have criminal records. Additionally, Smetana and Onderco (2018) identified the risk factors promoting criminal behavior and established that people select their friends and partners based on their deviant subcultures, particularly favoring those with criminal track records. Smetana and Onderco (2018) further stimulated individual, social, family, and environmental levels by the seven families. The authors concluded that convictions, repression, and preventive approaches like social support are ineffective in breaking the intergeneration transmission of deviance. Conclusions drawn by the authors are relevant in understanding the increasing rate of deviance among groups and why some interventions have proved ineffective thus far. Therefore, more holistic approaches are needed in preveting deviant behavior.

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