Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Development

Topic: Developmental Psychology
Words: 1196 Pages: 4

The person I am interviewing and observing is called John Mark; he is an 18-year-old male, single, and lives at home with his parents. He dropped out of school and is currently unemployed but is looking for work. Development refers to the processes by which a person becomes increasingly capable of functioning as an individual and as a member of society. It is a lifelong process that begins in the womb and continues through late adulthood. Physical development includes growth in size and weight, sexual maturation, and changes in appearance. Cognitive development includes increases in knowledge, reasoning abilities, and problem-solving skills. Psychosocial development includes the formation of relationships with others, acquisition of a sense of self-identity, and development of moral values. Different norms outline the expectation of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development, which are the determinant of someone’s success or failure in different activities.

Physical Development

John shows signs of profound physical development during his adolescence stage. This can be seen in his musculature, bone density, and overall size. He mentioned that recently he was weighing fifty-five kilograms but increased to sixty-one kilograms; his body is deeply sculpted with lean muscle mass, and his bones are noticeably denser than in most of his age mates. John’s physical capabilities have dramatically increased; he is now able to engage in strenuous activity for sustained periods without tiring. All of these changes are indicative of John reaching full physical maturity.

John is currently in a period of adolescent development, which is marked by physical changes as well as cognitive and social changes. According to most norms, this period extends from late childhood to early adulthood (Tint et at., 2017). During this time, John should be experiencing an increase in height and weight as well as a change in body composition. He will likewise undergo a process of sexual maturation, during which his reproductive organs will develop, and he will become capable of reproducing; additionally, John will start developing facial hair.

John has met some of the expectations of different norms, such as norm expectations for physical development during adolescence. He has gained height and weight as expected, and this experience is common. John is not reaching his norms expectations in physical development during adolescence since he is not growing facial hair. The average male generally starts to grow facial hair during peak of adolescence and will continue to grow more facial hair until he reaches his late twenties (Abbott, 2021). John has not yet started to grow any facial hair so far; this could be an indication that he is not developing as expected physically.

Cognitive Development

John should be able to communicate effectively with his peers, develop strong social relationships, and use the language fluently and appropriately. His communication skills should allow him to express his needs and wants as well as understand the communications of others. His social skills should enable him to interact comfortably with his peers, cooperate in group activities, and resolve conflicts peacefully (Tint et at., 2017). John’s language skills should let him speak and write effectively, using proper grammar and vocabulary.

John’s cognitive development as an adolescent is characterized by his ability to think critically, be creative, and handle social relationships with care. He is able to understand complex ideas and has a strong sense of morality. His creativity allows him to come up with innovative solutions to problems, and he is able to think conceptually about issues. Additionally, John has good social skills and can maintain healthy relationships. He understands the feelings of others and takes care not to hurt them emotionally (Tint et at., 2017). The young boy has been creative in writing articles which he does with passion. He mentioned that sometimes he acts as a mentor to his friends since he writes articles. He researches for new and educative content, which he uses to empower his age mates, thus helping them in finding life solutions.

Regarding cognitive development, John has perfect communication and interactional skills. He loves meeting new people and starting conversations; his ability to put others at ease and make them feel comfortable in his presence is one of his greatest strengths. He is a gifted listener from the observation point of view; friends are drawn to his positive attitude and his genuine interest in their lives. John understands the importance of communication and works hard to ensure that he is always clear and concise when sharing his thoughts or feelings with others. He additionally knows how to compromise, which is an essential skill in any good relationship. Whether he is dealing with friends, family, or co-workers, John is always respectful and considerate of other people’s needs and boundaries.

John has not met the cognitive development required to learn the perfect English language. He is able to understand and respond, but he speaks it with a lot of hesitation and stammering. There are a few important milestones that John has not yet reached in his cognitive development that are necessary for him to learn fluent English language. Another milestone is being able to associate meanings with words (Tint et at., 2017). John has not yet learned how words represent concepts, so he cannot pronounce words quickly and correctly in English since in his environment people use vernacular language for communication. Finally, John has not yet developed the ability to use grammar properly since he does not speak English regularly at home.

Psychosocial Development

Psychosocial development in adolescence typically refers to the psychological and social changes that occur during the teenage years. During adolescence, young people go through an internalization process where they begin to think more abstractly and critically about themselves and their place in society (Abbott, 2021). During this process, John should be exploring different ideologies, belief systems, and lifestyles. He may experiment with different roles and behaviors, both positive and negative. John is currently in the adolescent stage of psychosocial development, where he is likely trying out different ideologies and attempting to find his role in the world. During this stage, John has involved himself in writing inspirational books and becoming a motivational speaker to his age mates. He has tried this idea of speaking, and with practice, he may succeed in it. On the other hand, he has tried romantic relationships that could lead to marriage; he explained that his relationships have never worked. John has similarly tried starting a business, but it failed because he lacked the necessary skills and did not receive enough support from his family and friends.

In conclusion, cognitive, physical, and psychosocial development are all integral aspects of human growth and maturity. Each component contributes in its own unique way to the overall development of an individual. During adolescence, cognitive, physical, and psychosocial development all play a role in shaping the individual. Cognitive development in adolescents includes the acquisition of skills such as abstract thinking, judgment, problem-solving, and decision making. Physical development during adolescence includes changes in body size and shape, hormonal changes, and sexual maturity. Psychosocial development during adolescence includes changes in identity, relationships with others, and self-esteem. During adolescence, people think more complexly about ideas and issues; they proceed to implement some ideas but not all succeed.


Abbott, T. (2021). Social and personality development. Routledge.

Tint, A., Thomson, K., & Weiss, J. A. (2017). A systematic literature review of the physical and psychosocial correlates of Special Olympics participation among individuals with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 61(4), 301-324. Web.

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