The purpose of the study was to expand the initial outcomes while addressing the limitations of the research undertaken. The study sought to highlight the viability of CW-FIT as a multi-tier group contingency in conjunction with the PBIS principle and its proactive approach in the mitigation of students’ bad behavior without punishments (Monson et al. 2020). To test the viability of the results, investigations were carried out on the effectiveness of CW-FIT.
Furthermore, the study was undertaken in two art classes of seventh-grades of a Title One middle school of Mountain West in the US. In the aforementioned school, fifty-one percent of the students and 2 teachers participated in the research with the learners receiving reduced-price or free lunch (Monson et al. 2020). Classroom 1 participants consisted of 30 students with average ages of 12.30 years while in Classroom 2 there were 26 learners of 12.23 years average. The total population was 56, where 29 were females and 27 males with 35 Caucasians and 21 Hispanic.
Design, Description, Results, Discussions, and Future Research
The study design used during the research involved a single case reversal. In addition, a baseline was undertaken where CW-FIT was implemented with 5 data points in Classroom 1 collected by observers, and in Classroom two, 6 points were realized (Monson et al. 2020, p.43). All the changes were based on task-data group stability since it was a primary dependent variable and the baseline data was compared to interventions.
Similarly, target behavior which is the characteristics of the groups under study was undertaken in two phases. In the first part, group on-task behavior involved students working on projects while listening and watching teachers demonstrate how to use supplies. On the other hand, target student on-task; an individual learner was observed by researchers for on-and off-task behaviors (Monson et al. 2020). Further, praise and reprimand by teachers was another component that involved encouraging and discouraging the students under study.
During data collection, procedures such as consent, training, and baseline were undertaken. Teachers, students, and parents signed consent forms before the study began. Furthermore, five and six points were collected in Classrooms 1 and 2 respectively. Moreover, teachers were trained on CW-FIT procedures for 45 minutes where they reviewed all components of the research procedure. As a result, they choose the expectations needed by each group or class.
During the reversal and baseline, fidelity was 1.14% and 5.5% in Classrooms one and two respectively. On the other hand, group on-task behavior realized 61.5% in Classroom 1 during baseline with high variability; an increase to 86.07 percent. Further, the average SD= 4.41 or 88.9% was realized during the CW-FIT of high variability and an upward moderate trend with 1 overlapping data point (Monson et al. 2020, p.44). However, in Classroom two, the on-task average was 57.06% with low variability and upward trend. Further, the combined percentage showed a 17.75% increase in student on-task, which was lower compared to the past CW-FIT studies with elementary students. The second target student improved in the on-task behavior, increasing from 60.74% to 81.67% during baseline to intervention respectively (Monson et al. 2020). This was a 20.93% increase, corresponding to previous CW-FIT research.
The CW-FIT study proves to be a positive intervention method for students in elementary schools. The praise of teachers who felt unprepared in middle schools to manage student behavior improved significantly. In addition, both participating students and tutors found Tier 1 socially valid and helpful as recommended in the previous studies. As such, they appreciated the implementation of the intervention as it led to positive changes among the learners.
In conclusion, although the research has tremendous positive outcomes, there are limitations. The article highlights that the first investigations were carried out in two art classrooms. Therefore, to improve its viability in generalization, the study should be implemented in more schools and other classes. Furthermore, future studies should include all races hence the intervention to be implemented in more diverse environments thus collecting more data.
Monson, D. K., Caldarella, P., Anderson, H. D., & Wills, P. H. (2020). Improving student behavior in middle school art classrooms. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 22(1), 38-50.