Max can be diagnosed with three issues, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, language and speech disorder, and intellectual disability. Alcohol use during pregnancy can put the child in danger. When the alcohol in a mother’s blood crosses the placenta, and into her fetus, a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder develops (Mattson et al., 2019). Alcohol, as in Max’s case, can therefore impair the baby’s natural growth. Later on, kids might encounter mental health issues and problematic behavior (Zeanah, 2018). A language and speech disorder prevents youngsters from developing language abilities. Children who struggle with language and speech issues, such as Max, have trouble finding the correct words, have trouble reading, and make grammar and spelling mistakes. Many children with speech delays can improve their abilities with early intervention in preschool. The leading recognized risk factor for intellectual disability, whose genetic cause is unknown, is maternal alcohol use disorder (Agrawal et al., 2018). Whether they be communicative, social, or behavioral limitations, people with these impairments frequently encounter a variety of obstacles in their daily lives (Zeanah, 2018). These obstacles can easily impair a person’s ability to lead a typical life.
Given the biopsychosocial theory, the biological, psychological, and social aspects that should be taken into account while dealing with a client who is an infant are those that can influence the origin and course of health and sickness (Frazier, 2020). The elements that influence people’s lives on an individual and contextual level, as well as the risk and protective factors that arise in those contexts, should be taken into account while analyzing positive health development. According to biopsychosocial therapy, these three elements have a significant impact on health-related outcomes, and one component is insufficient to explain all. In Max’s case, there is a clear connection between all the aspects that seriously impact his health and potential for development.
Speech therapy, naturalistic treatments, and treatment circumstances may all be recognized as interventions that an expert might offer to assist Max with his language and speech issues. Speech therapy is advantageous to the patient since it can enhance the patient’s speech, communication, and articulation. A few of these are language treatments and articulation therapy. Naturalistic treatments employ particular strategies that provide clients with chances to apply target language structures (Zeanah, 2018). This strategy also encourages language learning. The capacity of the professional to read, understand, and respond correctly to the child’s cues is a crucial component of naturalistic therapies. Conditions for treatment offer chances for dialogue and contact with the patient (Zeanah, 2018). This could happen at home, in the community, or even at school, among other places.
Parental education, involvement in social services and special education programs, as well as effective treatment regimens, can all aid with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Children with FASDs may be more sensitive than normal children to disruptions, changes in lifestyle or daily routine, and unhealthy connections, according to research on parental education (Mattson et al., 2019). A caring, secure family environment is crucial for a child with FASD. Careful monitoring, follow-up, and adjustments as needed along the way are all components of effective treatment strategies (Mattson et al., 2019). Additionally, kids who get special education that is catered to their individual requirements and learning preferences are more expected to reach their full potential.
Early intervention programs, social and communication skill development, and constant supervision are all beneficial in Max’s case for intellectual impairment. By being able to address the child’s requirements at a young age, early intervention services can aid and enhance the child’s developmental trajectory as well as improve outcomes for the client. A type of intervention that focuses on the client’s social and communication skills is the practice of such skills. Children may have the chance to establish friendships with kids their age and build relationships with their peers as a result. To guarantee good childcare, family members, caregivers, and social agencies must supervise children carefully.
To evaluate the interventions, a good treatment plan is required, including close monitoring, follow-up, and additional treatments that will be required along the road. This will help to assess if each service or intervention has been successful. According to the case study, Max’s developmentally appropriate conduct is influenced by a variety of contextual circumstances. Because Max’s mother smoked and drank during the first three months of her pregnancy, he was born eight weeks early and had to spend three weeks in the hospital’s critical care unit since his lungs had not fully developed. His mother continued to be his primary caretaker while she was at work and in school, but this just serves to highlight how little time she had for playtime and interaction with him. Max has minimal social engagement with other kids his age; this lack of social interaction may play a role in Max’s health. These are the different elements that might affect Max’s conduct. Therefore, if used appropriately, the aforementioned remedies can have a favorable impact on the circumstance.
Agrawal, S., Rao, S. C., Bulsara, M. K., & Patole, S. K. (2018). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in preterm infants: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 142(3).
Frazier, L. D. (2020). The past, present, and future of the biopsychosocial model: A review of The Biopsychosocial Model of Health and Disease: New philosophical and scientific developments by Derek Bolton and Grant Gillett. New Ideas in Psychology, 57, 100755.
Mattson, S. N., Bernes, G. A., & Doyle, L. R. (2019). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a review of the neurobehavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 43(6), 1046-1062.
Zeanah, C. H. (2018). Handbook of Infant Mental Health. Guilford Publications.