A survey is a psychological research methodology used to collect information concerning people through their active participation in the process. The information gathered through the methodology can either be objective information like the weight, the height of the participant or their places of residence, or the number of their wages or can be information gathered through a self-report by following the life experiences like depression and family status (Kouicem, 2020). The research methodology is built following a five-step collaborative development process where the topic of interest is first identified, secondly: identify the existing survey items existing in education, third, is drafting the new survey items as well as adopt the existing survey items, fourth, review the draft as the adaption of the existing survey items continues and finally refining the drafted survey using cognitive interviewing.
Learners can understand gathering information through surveys and get proper data analysis and reporting guidance (Martin Thirkettle and Paul Stenner: Critical creative and credible). Survey methodology contributes much to our understanding of learning following the development of psychology in cognitive and epistemologies (Hayley et al., 2016). The paper will describe how the Survey methodology can be used to boost one’s understanding of the learning process. The methodology allows educators and learners to research other people’s work and leverage an individual’s expertise within and outside their organization or institutions to understand the learning basics (Al-Ababneh, 2020). Focus will also be made on the learning approach of studying other people’s research and critically evaluating the perceptions that learners may have regarding their findings to explain our understanding of the learning process. Different research methodologies provide different aspects of how humans perceive or understand the learning process.
Contribution of Survey to Our Understanding of Learning
The gathered information from the participants through survey methodology is practical and accurate. In learning, accurate data are always obtained from the direct subject through one-on-one interaction with the respondent. For the data to be reliable, they should be fetched from primary sources through interviews, observations, and many more (Alarcón-Rubio, 2013). Measurement of the physical properties in natural science is a self-evident proper means of studying. Learners can measure the distance covered against time and the data collected are used to calculate the speed of the object moving.
Quantitative studies employing surveys may be divided into two main categories based on the purpose, the methodology, and the analysis of the findings. Surveys are a very adaptable instrument, and by gathering the responses and examining the connections between them, exploratory investigations concentrate on creating a useful measure to define the subject of inquiry (Huang, 2021). This sort of work is sometimes dubbed “scale development,” and it frequently entails a type of study known as “factor analysis.”
A well-designed survey can measure things that no other method can. Additionally, surveys offer the chance to examine a greater range and participant pool than other methods do. This indicates that, at least for issues that lend themselves to such an approach, survey techniques are among the most innovative and reliable procedures accessible in psychology research, as opposed to being the middle child between totally quantitative and strictly qualitative approaches (Martin Thirkettle and Paul Stenner: critical, creative and credible). When designing a questionnaire, it is important to keep in mind the appropriate ways of assessing the validity and reliability of the survey. In the survey, questionnaires are developed following these steps; forming the question to be researched, defining the psychological constructs, drafting questions and appropriate responses, plotting the questionnaires, and finalizing the reliability and validity of the survey.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Researchers can draw their conclusions based on the findings made through survey methods since it is the most reliable method of collecting data from the subjects directly. The method is easily administered and time-saving as compared to other methods of data collection (Wood et al., 2011). On the other hand, respondents may not be willing to give out accurate data mostly when they are asked sensitive questions and therefore making the findings unreliable due to the vague response received from the subjects (Hayley et al., 2016). In some cases, the respondents might just answer the questions asked without proper knowledge of the subject thereby ending up making the survey methodology unreliable in the learning process.
Collaborative Survey Development
Theoretical literature may not provide learners with the collaborative guidance they need to conduct survey research in real-world educational environments. To produce a new survey instrument, learners collaborate with academics, topic specialists, and other parties to compose or modify survey items (Wood et al., 2011). This method is known as the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northeast & Islands collaborative survey creation process (Maghssudipour et al., 2020). Utilizing the knowledge of others inside and outside their company, students and teachers may use this five-step method to ensure a high-quality survey and lessen the strain on anyone.
Throughout this procedure, the survey is developed by the core survey development team, a small team of people. The team should consist of three to eight people, some of whom should have experience in survey development, some of whom should be experts in the subject matter of the survey, and some of whom should be familiar with the regional situation (Boon and Van Baalen, 2019). Depending on the project, the team’s size may vary. A core development team should follow the five processes mentioned when they create a survey.
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Cognitive Progress is the process of cognition involved in the interaction of many mental processes to produce knowledge. The phases children go through as they develop and encourage them to actively learn new knowledge are the foundation of Piaget’s cognitive development theory. Children and adults who use these strategies to make sense of their surroundings experience cognitive transformation (Hyun et al., 2020). The shift is activity-based when a child is young, connecting with cognitive thinking later in life. Beginning with the sensorimotor stage, which lasts from birth to age two, Piaget’s stages of cognitive development go from infancy to maturity. During this period, children learn and think by doing and finding out how things operate (Boon and Van Baalen, 2019). Children between the ages of 2 and 7 are in the second stage of the preoperational stage. During this time, they engage in pretend play and language development.
Although Piaget’s theories of genetic epistemology have significantly impacted the development of psychology, his establishment of a research technique is frequently disregarded or undervalued.
Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Social connection is crucial for children to develop in cooperative play and their interactions with the wider social circles surrounding them. Through this process, children learn how to act and think in a multicultural society (Veraksa, 2022). According to Vygotsky, peers and highly aware adults can help youngsters develop the abilities necessary for culturally engaged play. Children interacting with their classmates think more clearly (Hyun et al., 2020). The way that youngsters express themselves via language influences how they think and how they learn new abilities. Children benefit from social influences and adults who help them develop culturally important abilities at an early age and additional skills as they become older.
Classroom Application of Both Theorists’ Views
The perspectives of both theories have classroom applications when attempting to describe the educational process. Piaget claims that kids learn because they naturally seek to comprehend the world around them (Mascolo and Kallio, 2020). Young children have a natural curiosity and a desire to “understand the workings of both the physical and the social environment” from early puberty (Mascolo and Kallio, 2020). At the same time, Vygotsky would contend that education is affected by cultural transmission since it is the essential goal of all cultures to instill fundamental cultural values and competencies in their offspring.
The survey preparation, the choice of the sample, delivery, data analysis, and reporting are all parts of the survey research process. Different tasks may be performed at each level depending on the type of data being gathered. For instance, educators may use an existing survey instrument and bypass the survey construction step if they wish to conduct a study on a subject that has already been extensively studied in contexts comparable to their own (Kouicem, 2020). They can also want to use an existing survey while adding questions that are especially pertinent to their situation. If there are no surveys available for the subject, instructors will have to create one in the stage.
Assumptions Inherited in Survey Approach About Learning
The information that is presented in the research findings done through surveys is true and affects our understanding of the learning process and cognitive development. Survey research methodology assists many learners in getting first-hand information about a subject of their interest and they are in a position to better understand the points.
Survey research is an effective and acceptable method when describing and examining variables and constructs of interest. While there are several techniques to lessen the possibility of errors, survey research, like all research, has the potential for several types of error. Advanced practitioners may better assess how and whether the findings from a survey research study relate to practice if they know the various causes of error and techniques to enhance survey research. Survey methodology affects one’s understanding of the learning process and how data is collected and analyzed.
Alarcón-Rubio, D., Sánchez-Medina, J.A. and Winsler, A. (2013) ‘Private speech in illiterate adults: Cognitive functions, task difficulty, and literacy’, Journal of Adult Development, 20(2), pp.100-111.
Al-Ababneh, M. (2020) ‘Linking ontology, epistemology, and research methodology’, Science & Philosophy, 8(1), pp.75-91.
Boon, M. and Van Baalen, S. (2019) ‘Epistemology for interdisciplinary research–shifting philosophical paradigms of science’, European journal for philosophy of science, 9(1), pp.1-28.
Martin Thirkettle and Paul Stenner: Class Readings Chapter 1 Introduction: critical, creative and credible 1.
Huang, Y. (2021). Comparison and contrast of Piaget and Vygotsky’s Theories’, In 7th International Conference on Humanities and Social Science Research (ICHSSR 2021) (pp. 28-32). Atlantis Press.
Hyun, C., Tukiran, M., Wijayanti, L., Asbari, M., Purwanto, A. and Santoso, P. (2020) ‘Piaget versus Vygotsky: Educational Implications between similarities and differences’, Journal of Industrial Engineering & Management Research, 1(3), pp.286-293. Web.
Investigating Psychology 3 Edited by Hayley Ness, Helen Kaye and Paul Stenner The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA First published 2016 Copyright © 2016 The Open University.
Kouicem, K. (2020) ‘Constructivist theories of Piaget and Vygotsky: implications for pedagogical practices’, Psychological and educational studies, 13(3), pp.359-372.
Maghssudipour, A., Lazzeretti, L. and Capone, F. (2020) ‘The role of multiple ties in knowledge networks: Complementarity in the Montefalco wine cluster’, Industrial Marketing Management, 90, pp.667-678.
Mascolo, M. and Kallio, E., 2020. The phenomenology of between: An intersubjective epistemology for psychological science. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 33(1), pp.1-28.
Veraksa, N., 2022. Vygotsky’s theory: Culture as a prerequisite for education. In Piaget and Vygotsky in XXI century (pp. 7-26). Springer, Cham.
Wood, C., Meachem, S., Bowyer, S., Jackson, E., Tarczynski‐Bowles, M.L. and Plester, B., 2011. A longitudinal study of children’s text messaging and literacy development. British Journal of Psychology, 102(3), pp.431-442.